Sunday, December 28, 2014

Suspension Bridge

Snippet from, Nashville and Her Trade, 1870, Charles E. Robert

Page 381
A magnificent Wire Suspension Bridge spans the Cumberland at this place, which is reckoned as one of the finest and most substantial bridge structures in America, and perhaps the longest in the South.  It is a vast improvement on the old bridge, which was built during the year 1850, and destroyed by having its wires cut upon the evacuation of the City by the Confederate Army under General Albert Sidney Johnson, in February, 1862. The present structure is more roomy and much stronger than its predecessor. The rebuilding was commenced in July, 1865, and on May 31st, 1866, the bridge was completed and thrown open to travel. The total cost of the structure was upwards of $140,000. The architect was Major Wilbur F. Foster, of this City, who distinguished himself as an engineer in the late war, and served with honor and credit to himself as Chief Engineer on the Staff of Gen. Alex. P. Stuart.  

The wood and wire work was done under the supervision of Albert Fink, President of the Louisville Industrial Works, and now Superintendent of the Louisville & Nashville Railroad, a gentleman whose reputation as a scientific and accomplished genius and industrious and energetic workman, is wide-spread. The masonry of the present Bridge is the same as that used in the old one, save the addition of six and a half feet to the piers on the Edgefield side of the river - the present pitch of the bridge being twenty-five feet lower on the Edgefield than on the Nashville side. The weight of the original cables was about 93,800 pounds, while the weight of the present cables is about 165,000 pounds. The number of wires in each of the two cables is 2,456, making the total number of wires supporting the bridge in the center, 4,912. The weight of the bridge between the towers is about 648,000 pounds, and the total strength of the cables is 7,368,000 pounds. The greatest load which can be placed on the bridge at one time, counting forty pounds to the square foot, is 604,800 pounds, and this load added to the weight of the bridge, gives us 1,252,800 pounds, so that the bridge has a strength almost six times as great as it can be loaded. The length of the bridge is about seven hundred feet, and its width thirty-five feet, which includes a splendid carriage-way about twenty-five feet wide and sidewalks on either side, each about five feet wide. The carriage-way is guarded by a heavy framing of timber, firmly riveted and bolted together, and known as the McCallum Truss pattern. This truss is secured to the cables in the center by means of heavy wrought-iron rods, which increase in length as we go toward either end of the bridge, until they reach almost to the top of the towers. These towers are four in number. The height of the bridge above low-water mark, is one hundred and ten feet. The gentlemen owning the suspension bridge are incorporated under the style of the "Broad Street Bridge Company." A Board of twelve Directors, elected annually, govern the affairs of the company.  

The present officers are: President, Byrd Douglas, Esq.; Secretary and Treasurer, A. W. Butler, Esq. 
This bridge is perhaps, one of the best paying institutions of the City, and yields a dividend of twelve per cent, per annum. It is the only foot-bridge connecting the City with Edgefield, and consequently is an indispensable necessity.


A snippet from, Nashville and Her Trade, 1870, Charles E. Robert

Across the river, to the north, is the city of Edgefield, or, as it is sometimes called,  "Little Brooklyn."  Edgefield is an incorporated city, and is about one and a quarter miles long, and nearly the same in width. It is, perhaps, one of the loveliest resident places in the South, or in the United States, for that matter; and during the Spring and hot Summer months, is a pleasant retreat for the business man, whose labors and interests lay in Nashville. It is connected with the city by a magnificent wire Suspension Bridge; by a splendid iron bridge, of the Fink Truss patent, belonging to the Louisville & Nashville Railroad Company, and by ferries, both at the Upper and Lower Levees. Edgefield is remarkable for the elegance and taste of its buildings, the spaciousness of its avenues, and the intelligence and refinement of its people. Its population, for the most part, is resident, a large number of people doing business in the city having their residences there. Property, consequent upon the large influx of population that Nashville has received in the past few years, has so increased in value, that space has become a costly luxury, only to be enjoyed by the more extravagant. In fact, the many persons who constitute a moving power, and a large proportion of our commercial world, are compelled to seek homes in this and the many suburban towns that cluster around the metropolis, and are vitalized by its proximity. Therefore, the daily emigration and exodus is large.

Wednesday, December 10, 2014

Sillabub (Sillibub, Syllabub)

Sillabub - One quart of rich cream beat until frothy, grate one half nutmeg over it, add wine or rum.-Harriet Arnow

This Nashville Christmas treat has British origins and is mentioned in Samuel Pepys diary in 1663. I first read about it in Nashville history literature. Authors of local history, Miss Jane Thomas, Alfred Crabb and Harriet Arnow, each included sillabub in their tales of Nashville Christmas fare.

Susanna McGavock Carter, a slave on the Belle Meade plantation was well know in Nashville for her excellent sillabub.

Syllabubs and Possetts - Historic Food

Lady Rachel Fane's Syllabub

Past is Present

Madeira Syllabub

Syllabubs and fools are among the simplest, best and most characteristically English desserts. Both are versatile; to make syllabub, you could use just about any white or fortified wine; Madeira is particularly good.

Six individual syllabubs.
-2 cups heavy cream
-½ cup Sercial Madeira
-a little sugar
-3 egg whites
-grated zest of a lemon
1. Whisk the Madeira and sugar into the cream and whip it until the liquids marry.
2. Add the whites and zest and whip the syllabub until it begins to form peaks.
3. Divide the syllabub into six pretty glasses and chill for at least four hours before serving.

Notes: - As inferred in the introduction to the recipe, you can substitute other wines for the Madiera. Dry wines--crisp whites or fino Sherry, for instance--are not a good idea, but otherwise anything goes. Madeira, however, is our favorite. - Buy good eggs to reduce any risk of salmonella. If you are reluctant to use raw eggs, omit them. The syllabub will be runnier, but no less traditional or good.

Wednesday, December 3, 2014

Inglewood Railroad Trestle.

NES Collection, Nashville Public Library, 2011

Gallatin Pike near the railroad trestle in Inglewood looking north. On the right you can see just a bit of the old Hudson's sign. Hudson's was a gas station and a restaurant and was still there at least into the late 1970's. Gasoline was 16 cents a gallon. Gallatin Pike was 2 lanes and the old interurban tracks run along and merge under the bridge. My go to auto person says the cars and trucks are very early mid teens to early 20's. At the bottome right of the photo is the date May 11. 1929. This photo was in an exhibit at the Nashville Public Library of a Nashville Electric Service Collection in 2011. I made a photo of this image which was framed and hanging on the wall. It came out better than expected. I have posted this photo face book, as well.

Close up of 1929 photo.

Recent view from google maps.

Thursday, November 13, 2014

Dairies - Nashville and Davidson County, Tenn.

Milk, Butter and Ice Cream

The Ed Strasser place in the Opry Mills area is a traditional 240 acre dairy farm. It is reportedly (Holding on to the Herd) the only family owned dairy farm remaining in Davidson County. At one time there were dozens of dairy farms scattered across the county. Some were located in the now heavily populated urban areas of East and West Nashville. 

See listing of dairies and locations below.

Nashville City Directory

Nashville City Directory

Nashville City Directory

Union Ice Cream TSLA

Nashville City Directory


Nashville City Directory

image from ebay

Purity Dairy website

Image from ebay

This listing of Nashville and Davidson County dairies is, for the most part, from a 1915 Nashville City Directory.  A few of the better known dairies that came along later have been added.  The name of the dairy is given and the owner.  The distance given is how many miles the dairy was located from the Nashville Public Square.  RR designates rural route number.  Rural routes in Davidson County, that were not within the Nashville postal system, included Brentwood, Madison, White's Creek, and Donelson. See bottom of page for location of rural route stations of the Nashville Post Office.

Anthony Pure Milk Company, Inc.
Edelweiss Dairy
Knapp Farms
Jersey Farm Milk Co Inc. 722 4th av S
Nashville Pure Milk Company, Tru-li-Pur
Purity Dairy
Swift & Company
Union Ice Cream (Anthony Sudekum) became Sealtest
W.E. Davis & Son
Alprose (R Gasser) Edmondson Rd 12 ml RR1 Brentwood
Beck Spring Dairy  (Rychen Bros.) Bogle Ln  2 ml RR1
Beechland Dairy (F O Allen) RR1 Brentwood
Belgrade Dairy (J Mack Ellis) - Lebanon Rd 4ml RR!
Belle Meade Butter Company
Belmont Dairy (W H Staney) 921 12 Av S
Beloit Jersey Dairy (Jon Von Kanel) Harding Rd 6 ml RR11
Benedict H M Lebanon Rd 4 ml RR1
Binkley Mrs Wm White's Creek Rd 5 ml RR1
Bixler B F Madison
Bogle W G Lebanon Rd 5 ml RR1
Brightwood Dairy (J J Rader) Blackman Rd RR8
Brook Side Dairy (H O Edwards) Lebanon Rd 5 ml RR1
Butter Dairy (W F Shelton) Nolensville Rd 6 ml RR8
Cave Spring Dairy (W H Williams & son) Owen & Winstead Rd 9 ml RR8
Cedar Grove Dairy (Ethridge & Hyde) Murfreesboro Rd 7 ml RR7
Cedar Grove Dairy (J E Binkley) RR6
Cedar Hill Dairy (McMurray Bros) RR2 Antioch 
Clear View Farm Dairy (B H Charlton) Murfreesboro Rd 6 ml RR7
Clover Nook Dairy (Jno F Logue) Lebanon Rd 4 ml RR1
Cloverdale Dairy (J T McClanahan & Son) RR1
Cold Spring Dairy (Fannie Foster) Lebanon Rd 2 ml RR1
College Heights Dairy (J H Allen) Lebanon Rd RR1
Craiglawn Dairy (S a & C R Craig) Lebanon Rd 5ml RR1
Crescent Dairy (J K Richmond) White's Creek Rd 4 mi RR3
Crocker Springs Dairy
Dellfern Dairy (A F Thalmann)  Gallatin Rd 9 ml RR2  
Delrose Dairy (Anderson & Welch) RR1
Dew Drop Dairy (J P Floyd) Mill Creek Valley Rd 7 ml RR7
Dun Allie Dairy (L R Campbell) Murfreesboro Rd 6 ml RR7
East Lynne Dairy (W R Price) Gallatln Rd Madison
Easton Dairy (A D Ridley) Lyle Av RR 
Economy Dairy (J M Gafford) Hydes Ferry Rd RR6
Edgewood Dairy (H C McFarland) Lebanon Rd
Englewood Dairy (W K Sanford) Murfreesboro Rd
Fanning Grove Dairy (Field Bros) McLean Station
Fontaine Bros Buena Vista Rd RR3
Forest Home Dairy (J. W. Ezell) Elm Hill Rd
Fortland Farm Dairy RR10
Gloucester Farm Dairy (Armistead & Armistead) Gallatin Rd Madison Station
Golden Spring Dairy (Robt Niederhauser) RR8
Green Lawn Farm (W B Bennett) Trinity Ln RR1 Madison
Green Vale Milk Company 1901 Nolensville Rd
Hamer M D McLean Station RR8
Harrington R L & A C - Dickerson Rd RR2
Hickory Hurst (H C Hagan) Mureesboro rd 4 RR7
Honey Suckle Dairy (B F Sanders) Ewing lane 5 ml RR3
Honey Suckle Dairy (R S Smith) Ewing Rd 4 ml RR3
Ingleside Farm Dairy (W C Tune) Nolensville rd 3 McLean Station
Jersey Dairy (Robt Fuhrer) Franklin Rd RR9
Kirby Cowan Dickerson Rd 8 ml
Linden Grove Dairy (W M Tamble) Dickerson Rd 4 ml RR2
Locust Grove Dairy (Buford Sweeney)Stone’s River Rd 6 ml RR2
Long View Dairy (C Worrell) RR2
Maple Lane Dairy (L C Jordan) Dickerson Rd 4 mi RR 2
Maple Leaf Dairy (J C Hlbbett) Elm Hill Rd 4 ml RR1
Maple Wood Dairy (W D Carter) RR1 Madison
McCool R E - Brick Church Rd 9 ml RR1 White's Creek
Melrose Dairy - Lannom Bros.
Melrose Dairy (J W Lannom & Sons) Lebanon Rd 5 ml RR1
Merry Brook Dairy (Shannon Mayfield) Granny White Rd RR2 Brentwood
MIII Creek Valley Dairy (Milton McWhorter) Mclean Station RR7
Mountain View Dairy (J W Fuqua) Murfreesboro Rd 2 ml RR1
Nashville Dairy (E C Coleman) Thompson Ln 5 ml RR9
North Side Dairy (B M Bratton) Hydes Ferry Rd 3 ml RR6
Oak Hill Dairy (Mrs V L. Kirkman) Franklin Rd RR9
Oak Lawn (A H Gillespie) Brick Church Rd RR2
Oakwood Dairy & Stock Farm (Jno Tyer & Sons) Murfreesboro Rd 7 ml RR7
Orchard Home Dairy (J P Jordan) Charlotte Rd 9 ml RR11
Orchard Spring Dairy (R G Clark) Blackman Rd 6 ml RR8
Over Hill Dairy (D A Harrison)  McLean Station
Overton Hall Dairy (J M Overton) Brentwood 
Pure Milk Dairy (V C Smith) Ewing Ln 5 ml RR1 White's Creek
Rader G R Antioch Rd 7 ml RR7
Ravencroft Dairy (W D Hardeman) RR3 Brentwood 
Richland Dairy (W G Sanford) Murfreesboro Rd 3 ml RR7
River View Farm Dairy (J J Brittain) RR10
Rosebank  Dairy  (Edw Gasser) Rosebank Av RR10
Silver Springs Dairy (J M Griffin) Dickerson Rd 5 ml RR2
Spot Cash Dairy (Wm M Cochran)  Charlotte Rd 5 ml RR2
Spring Hill Dairy (W F fly) elm Hill Rd 6 ml RR7
Springdale Dairy (C B Mims) McLean Station
Standard Dairy (W N Brown) Lebanon  Rd 4 ml RR1
Stone's River Dairy (Frank Rogers)  Donelson
Sunny Side Dairy (A Ashton) RR6
Sunshine Dairy (J C Cooper) Donelson
Swiss Farm Dairy, Cumberland Circle, Donelson
Tune W L Couchvllie  Rd 6 ml RR1
Una Dairy (C J Ellis) RR2 Antioch
Walnut Grove Dairy (Jas A Graves) Dickerson rd 3 ml RR2
Walnut Grove Farm (W A Griswold) Lebanon Rd 5 ml RR1
Walton E F RR3 Nashville
West Wood Dairy  (Edw Niederhauaer) RR3
Willow Brook Dairy Nmii Thon)) FertIlizer Rd RR7
Woodbine Dairy (Henry Jackson & Son) McLean Station RR7
Woodland Dairy (P K Ferguson) Nolensville Rd 4 ml McLean Station
Woodmere Farm (Fount H Rion) Granny White Rd 11 ml Brentwood
York S F McLean Station RR7

RR Rural Routes from the Nashville Post Office
Route 1, ran from the South Nashville Station (819 2nd Ave So)
Routes2 and 3, ran from the Northeast Station (204 Foster St)
Routes 4, 5. 11 and 12, ran from the West Nashville Station (4818 Charlotte Ave)
Route 6, ran from the North Station (614 Jefferson)
Routes 7, 8 and 9, ran from the McLean Station (2805 Nolensville Rd)
Routes 10 ran, from the East Station (500 Woodland St)

Readers have reminded me of these dairies; Thompson Dairy, White's Creek Pike; Neely Bend Dairy, Madison; Tony Sudekum Dairy at Edenwald; Rychen Dairy, Nashville Airport Property; Burton Dairy, White's Creek Pike; Country Maid Dairy, Whites Creek Pike. 

Thursday, November 6, 2014

Spring Hill Cemetery

African American Burials
Spring Hill Cemetery, Madison, Davidson County, Tennessee. 
At Spring Hill Cemetery, on Gallatin Pike in Madison, there is a large section, with only a few markers, in the southwest corner of the cemetery that was reserved for the burial of persons of African descent. On a plat of the cemetery, the section is marked, "H" single graves.

Section H

A large marker with the name Joe Browne, across the front, is the most prominent in this section.

Three footstones, identify the persons buried in the lot as; Joe Browne 1860-1917; Callie Browne 1858-1953; and Olive Lischey (sister of Joe Browne) 1864-1918.

It was the search for Joe Browne's grave that brought me to this area of Spring Hill Cemetery. I first learned of Joseph Browne from Dr. Bill McKee of Cumberland University. Dr. McKee asked for my help in a history of Northeast Nashville that he was putting together. The resulting book, North Edgefield Remembered, tells the story of Joseph Browne and his wife Callie. Browne, born into slavery in 1859, was reared in the home of Louis Lischy, a Nashville florist. It was alleged in a divorce proceeding brought by Lischy's wife that Joe was the son of Louis Lischy. The graves of the two men are separated in the cemetery by only a narrow lane. Joe Browne worked for many years for Louis Lischy, at Lischy's greenhouse in Northeast Nashville. At Lischy's death, Browne took over the florist business and was well known in Nashville.

Nashville Globe

For many years Joe, Callie and Daisy lived in a home on Lischey Avenue.  Around the time that Joe died Callie built a new home on Mile End Avenue, now Douglas Avenue. Both homes are still standing.

Home owned by Joseph Browne, 1311 Lischey Avenue.  He did not live here.

Home of Callie Browne, 501 Douglas Avenue

Callie's daughter and Joe's step-daughter, Daisy Turner Washington, was a great-grandmother of Julian Bond, Senator from Georgia and a leader in the civil rights movement.

I wrote this biographical sketch for Joseph Browne to add to the Find-A-Grave website.

Born into slavery on the farm of Louis C. Lischy, near Nashville, in Davidson County, Tennessee. His mother was named Octavia Lischy. She was also known as Toby. Octavia was a slave of Louis Lischy, who was reputedly the father of Joseph. Joseph Lischy is found in the household of Louis Lischy in 1870. By 1880 he had changed his name to Joseph Browne. Joe was a florist in East Nashville. He married Callie Turner in 1895 and became a step-father to her 12 year old daughter Daisy Agnes Turner (Washington). Daisy's great-grandson is Julian Bond, social activist and a leader in the American Civil Rights Movement. In 1953, after the death of his wife Callie, Fisk University received a gift of $130,000 from Joe's estate. Dr. Johnson, then President of Fisk, said this was the largest gift ever received by Fisk from a Negro and he believed this to be the largest gift ever received by any educational institution by a Negro.

Joe and Callie are buried at the northwest corner of section H, designated as the old slave section or the Negro lot on some interment records at Spring Hill.

Section H covers quite a large area, but contains only a few grave markers. Very few burials in this section are recorded in the cemetery record books. A grave marker for Samuel Harvey Vaughn 1854-1892 stands near a cemetery roadway. In 1870, Harvey Vaughn was living in the house of Hiram Vaughn, working as a domestic servant. Markers for Emma Love 1863-1888 and her sister Florence Love 1870-1894 are near the middle of this section. They were daughters of Thaddeus Love 1812-1890, who was found in the 1880 census as a next door neighbor to Robert E. Love. The family, likely lived on the Robert Love property and were former slaves of the Love family. Thaddeus and his wife Sallie, and Jenny Love and Mahaly Love are buried at Spring Hill, according to death records, but no grave marker has been found. A marker for Martha Wade who died in 1931 is at the back of section H. Through a search of records including death records for Davidson County and Nashville, documentation has been found of more than 50 burials of African-Americans at Spring Hill Cemetery. The size of section H, and the lack of mention of most of these burials in the interment records for Spring Hill Cemetery leads to the belief that there may have been many more burials of persons of color at Spring Hill Cemetery from it's beginning in 1785 until the early 1950's.

Emma Love

Florence Love

Martha Wade

Samuel Harvey Vaughn

Surname First Name Date of Death
Allen Matt F. 8/28/1889
Allen Josie 9/4/1889
Blaine Bessie W. 8/18/1910
Boddie Sallie after 1870
Bowman A. W. 7/6/1897
Boyd Mary 5/25/1893
Browne Joe 1/25/1917
Browne Callie 6/6/1953
Bush Minnie 2/2/1901
Carter Ellen Amanda 1/30/1902
Davis Lizzie 5/15/1898
Everett Samuel 3/10/1900
Fisher Jacob 5/11/1897
Hall Celia May 1/27/1903
Hopkins Hattie 4/30/1899
Johnson Infant of Mattie 1/6/1901
Knight James 1/7/1892
Langley Henry J. 12/20/1905
Lee Jos. 10/9/1897
Lewis Katie 11/13/1900
Lewis Jere 5/26/1901
Lewis Millie 8/4/1912
Lischey Olive 6/12/1918
Love Sallie 12/27/1900
Love Mahaly 3/10/1901
Love Thaddeus 2/3/1906
Love Emma T. 6/1/1888
Love Florence E. 2/16/1894
Love Jennie 1/7/1892
Lynch Anny 4/2/1881
Miller Emmerson 10/14/1897
Moore Alexander 4/18/1897
Phillips Kingston 1901
Ragland Samuel 3/28/1902
Sledge Paralee 1/7/1901
Sledge Walter 8/11/1896
Smith Amy 11/7/1896
Sprat Henry J. 1/26/1899
Stevenson Annie 10/21/1899
Thomas Bettie 9/5/1897
Turner Phillis 4/30/1893
Vaughn Andrew 12/15/1901
Vaughn John Fulton 1/10/1908
Vaughn Albert 1/4/1898
Vaughn Fannie 10/26/1892
Vaughn Samuel Harvey 1/7/1892
Wade Martha 3/6/1931
Walton Wm. 3/11/1893
Webb Manuel 10/20/1892
Williams J. W. 10/28/1898
Woodson Bud 5/29/1897

Nashville, Tennessee, Tue, May 1, 1906 

For more information on Spring Hill Cemetery - History of Spring Hill Cemetery
Haysborough and Spring Hill

Saturday, October 25, 2014

Nashville 1834

Eastin Morris' TENNESSEE GAZETTEER, 1834

Nashville, the metropolis of the State of Tennessee, and the seat of justice of the county of Davidson, is elegantly situated on the soutb bank of Cumberland river, in lat. 36' 9' 43" N., long . 9' 47' 15" west from Washington City, or 86' 4' 15" west from London. The site is undulating and rocky, with unequal elevations from fifty to one hundred and seventy-five feet above low water mark. The ground plat is interspersed with beautiful cedar groves, and the environs present the richest variety of landscape scenery; the river seems to meander where it should, and the evergreen hills have the proper elevation and position to give boldness and symmetry to the picture; in short it is altogether one of the most romantic, healthy and flourishing little cities in the Valley of the Mississippi.

The first settlement was made in the year 1779 by the late General James Robertson and company but it had for some time previous been the occasional rendezvous of the French traders, and was then called the French Lick. In 1783 the legislature of North Carolina established the county of Davidson, and the first county court was held here on the 6th day of October, by the commissioned justices of the peace. They appointed Andrew Ewing clerk, and Daniel Williams sheriff, and made an order for the erection of a temporary court house and jail by the first day of January ensuing, at Nashboro as they then called the seat of justice. In 1784 a town was established by law, by the name of Nashville, in honor of the brave and patriotic General Nash, who fell at the battle of Germantown, October 4, 1777. The commissioners, Thomas Mulloy, Samuel Barton, Daniel Smith, James Shaw and Isaac Lindsey, were authorized and required to cause to be laid off two hundred acres of land at the Bluff, near to, but not so as to include the French Lick, in lots of one acre each, with convenient streets, lanes and alleys, reserving four acres for the purpose of erecting public buildings. And provision was made to allot to citizen subscribers, such number as they should draw, for which they were to receive a deed, upon condition that within three years they would make certain specified improvements thereon. This year there were two licensed taverns in Nashville, and a few shops. In 1787 there were about a half a dozen frame and log houses and twenty or thirty cabins. In November 1788, the Hon. John McNairy held the first superior court of law and equity for the county of Davidson and Sumner. John Macay was appointed clerk and Andrew Jackson, state's attorney pro tem.

In 1796 the legislature of Tennessee appointed additional trustees, and made some slight alterations in the registered boundaries of the town. In 1801 it was placed under the government of an Intendent and six commissioners. In 1804 it had a population of about 400 and in 1806 it was incorporated with a mayor and six aldermen, and Joseph Coleman was elected the first mayor. In 1810 the population was about 1100 and in 1812 the legislature sat here for the first time. In the spring of 1818 the citizens of Nashville hailed the arrival of the first steam boat, she carried 110 tons: was called the General Jackson, and built in 1817 at Pittsburg for Governor Carroll, who sold her to Messrs. Fletcher, Young and Marr, for $33,000 cash. Freight was then five cents from New Orleans to this place.

In 1822 a fine bridge was built across the Cumberland opposite the public square, which cost about $85,000. In 1823 the population was 3,463, and in June 1830 there were 5566 of which 1108 were slaves, and 204 were free persons of color. At present (1834) the population is about 7000, and there are about three hundred brick and two hundred frame and log dwelling houses; eighty brick and fifteen frame stores, twenty brick warehouses, fifty brick and twenty-five frame offices, and one hundred work shops. The public buildings are a court house, jail, penitentiary, lunatic asylum, university, female academy, theatre, Episcopal, Presbyterian, Cumberland Presbyterian, Methodist, Baptist, and Catholic churches, several banks a masonic hall, two market houses, water works, &c. And there are also two steam saw mills, one steam rolling mill, two brass and iron foundries, three hardware stores, three iron stores, four auction stores, eighteen wholesale stores, fifty-five retail stores, four groceries, six taverns, and a number of refectories, confectioneries, coffee houses, fancy stores, &c. Here are likewise six merchant tailors, ten saddlers, twelve shoemakers, four boot and shoemakers, four shoestores, two tanyards, about a dozen blacksmiths, one gunsmith, six silversmiths and jewellers, three extensive apothecary and drug stores, one hatter, three cabinet makers, a number of carpenters, three carriage makers, three wagon makers, three tallow chandlers, four tobacconists, two coppersmiths, five tinners, one engraver, four portrait painters, four house and sign painters, six bricklayers, four stone cutters, one marble worker, and several plasterers, glaziers, &c. There are four extensive printing offices, four large bookstores, three book binderies, two classical schools, two female academies, ten common schools, an infant school, and a number of Sunday schools. There are about a dozen clergymen including the collegiate and the academical instructors, upwards of forty practising lawyers, and about twenty-five physicians.

The Court House which stands on the public square, is a spacious and commodious edifice. It presents a handsome front of 105 feet and is sixty-three feet deep. The basement story contains a number of rooms, designed for public offices, and on the second and third floors there are two rooms forty by sixty feet each, two others thirty-six by forty, and two others twenty-three by forty. The basement story is eleven feet high, and the two principal ones are eighteen feet each, and the height of the whole building to the top of the dome is ninety feet. The foundation and part of the lower story is of fine hewn stone, and the remainder of brick, and the two fronts are ornamented with four white pilasters each, The dome contains a good town clock, and is supported by eight columns of Ionic order.

The Sheriff's office is on the first floor, the marshal's on the second, and the Secretary of State's on the third. All the state courts are held in the north room of the second story, and the Federal court occupies the south room in the same. The two large rooms in the third story are handsomely fitted up for the use of the legislature until a state house shall be built.

The Market House on the square, is one of the finest buildings of the kind, to be found in the west. At each end there are spacious rooms, one of which is occupied as a City Hall and recorder's office.

The Nashville University. This institution is located on a handsome elevation, at the upper end of College street. Its buildings are brick, and consist of a college edifice, three stories high, 200 feet long and 50 broad, containing a chapel, recitation rooms, and forty four rooms for students; a building of one story 100 feet by 40, containing a laboratory, apparatus, &c.; a house for the steward, refectory, &c., and a house for the President, which is in a beautiful grove east of Market street, a short distance from the college. The mineralogical cabinet contains upward of 10,000 specimens; the philosophical apparatus cost $6000; there is a good chemical apparatus, and also a museum of natural history. The library contains 2000 volumes, and there are libraries belonging to the students containing 1200 volumes.

The institution originated in the Davidson county academy, established by the state of North Carolina, Dec. 29, 1785. The academy was converted into Cumberland College by the legislature of Tennessee, Sept. 11th 1806. In 1826, the name was changed to the Nashville University. The value of its property in and near Nashville, exclusive of the college buildings, &c., is estimated at about $50,000; and it owns 25,000 acres of land in the Western District.

REV. PHILIP LINDSLEY, D. D., President and Professor, Mor.
Phil., Pol. Econ., &c.

Gerard Troost, M. D., Prof. of Chemistry, Mineralogy and Geology.

James Hamilton, A. M., Prof. Mathematics and Natural Philosophy.

N. S. Parmantier, Prof. French Language and Literature.

George Ely and Abednego Stephens, Tutors in the Greek and Latin.

Number of students in the four classes, from 70 to 100; whole number of alumni, 118, in 1833. Commencement is on the first Wednesday in October.-Vacations, 1st from commencement, five and a half weeks; second, from 1st Wednesday in April, five and a half weeks.

Annual Expenses:-Tuition, room rent, servants hire, &c., $50; for board, $1.75 per week; for the year $70.00-total $120. Candidates for the ministry of all denominations are admitted at half price.

The Episcopal Church is a fine stone building handsomely stuccoed, and in the Gothic style of architecture. It is fifty three feet deep in front, on Spring street, from the extremities of the buttresses, and extends back along high street nearly, eighty feet. It contains a basement story nine feet high, embracing a room forty by forty five feet, for lectures and Sunday schools, together with rooms for the vestry and clergy men, communicating with the body of the church by private stairs behind the pulpit. The body of the church is forty five feet wide, sixty nine long and twenty four high; containing sixty two spacious pews, with extensive galleries on three sides. The pulpit and desk are in good taste, and the front gallery is ornamented with a fine toned organ. The windows are five feet wide and twenty one high, having buttresses or projections of two feet square between them, terminating in points.. The whole is surmounted with a Gothic cupola, in which is a bell, weighing 544 lbs. The corner stone was laid with appropriate ceremonies on the 5th of July 1830, and it was consecrated by the name of Christ Church, in July, 1831. The whole cost was about $16,000. Rev. George Weller, Rector, and the number of communicants, thirty four.

The Baptist Church, also on Spring street is a neat brick building two stories high, forty five by sixty feet, with a tall steeple, and an excellent bell. The whole cost about $6000.
The Baptist association was formed in 1820, and in 1825, there was a division, and the Reformers as they are denominated, seceded from the regular Baptists, retained the church, and declined any further connexion with the Association, deeming it unwarranted by word of God. They reject all confessions of faith, and profess to be guided by the scriptures alone. They receive all persons professing faith in Jesus Christ by Immersion, for the remission of sins, and they meet every Lord's day, in order to engage in worship, by reading the scriptures, exhortation, prayer, praise, breaking of bread and contribution for the poor. The number of members in April, 1834, was 456, of which 280 were colored. The regular Baptists have about 100 members, and hold their meetings in the Masonic Hall.

The New Methodist Church, is situated on Spring between High and Summer streets, nearly opposite to Christ church; is a spacious and elegant building. Its form is that of a parallelogram, being sixty feet in front and extending ninety feet back. It has a basement story containing two rooms, thirty by sixty feet each, intended for Sunday schools and class meetings. The front approached by stone steps, is composed of three parts-an inverted portico, supported by two massive stone columns of the Doric order, and enclosed between rusticated stone piers flanked by antis, containing each a flight of stairs to the galleries, and lighted by well proportioned windows. The extent of the first story is marked by a handsome stone cornice extending the whole length of the front, and surmounted by a blocking course on which rest four pilasters that embellish the second story, the most striking feature of which is a large Grecian window in the centre, surmounted by a noble arch, and two others with square heads, immediately above and corresponding with those in the lower story. The second story is surmounted by a well proportioned ballustrade, that conceals the roof, and lends to the whole composition a light and pleasing effect. The main body of the building is lighted by two ranges of windows in good proportion. The interior of the building is finished in corresponding style. The pulpit is richly draperied, and fronted by a spacious altar. The pews are free, and well arranged, and will accommodate about 1500 persons.

It is contemplated during the present season, to surmount the whole structure with a turret, in uniformity of proportion with the other parts of the building, in which will be placed a bell weighing 1100 lbs., which has been presented to the church by a gentleman of New Orleans. The cost of the building when completed will be upwards of $12,000. It was solemnly dedicated to the worship of God on the last Sunday in October, 1833, by the venerable Bishop McKendree, assisted by the Rev. Messrs Douglass, McMahon and Maddin.

The Methodists have three other places of preaching the old church on Spring street, Gwinn's Chapel, on College side, and the African church. As early as 1796, they had a small society here, and had erected a meeting house on the public square. About the year 1809, they held their meetings in the jail, and in 1815, a small brick church was erected in South Field, and they had 20 or 30 members. In 1822, the society contained 90 members, and there has been a gradual increase ever since. The number in April 1834, was 780 whites, and 819 blacks in the city and vicinity.

The Presbyterian Church, also on Spring street, between the new Methodist church and the river. It is built on the site of the old church, which was burnt in 1832, and is ninety one feet long and sixty-nine wide, and when completed will be one of the handsomest buildings in the city. It has a basement story eleven feet high and sixty four feet square in the clear, which is comfortably fitted up for a lecture room and Sunday school. The main room is sixty-five feet square, contains 124 pews, and will accommodate eight hundred persons, The gallery is very spacious and will hold about 500. The vestibule is approached by a flight of stone steps, extending the whole width of the building and is supported by six massive brick columns cased and fluted. The whole building when completed will have cost about $16,000.

The Presbyterian church here had no regular pastor until the installation of the Rev. Aaron Campbell, in 1821; previous to that time it was occasionally supplied, and doctors Craig head and Blackburn, may be considered the fathers of this branch of the church. Dr. Blackburne organized a church in 1813, and when Dr. Campbell was called to the charge, there were about one hundred members. Dr. Campbell resigned in 1826, and there was a vacancy for about a year, when the Rev. Dr. Obadiah Jennings took charge; he died in January 1831, and there was a vacancy again until the call of the Rev. John T. Edgar, the present pastor. He was installed on the 25th December, 1833. Number of members in May 1834, two hundred.

The Cumberland Presbyterian Church, is situated on Summer street. It is a plain but neat brick building fifty seven by seventy feet. It is two stories high exclusive of the basement story which is partly below the surface.. The front presents a parapet wall variegated with recessed arches, resting on pillars which forms an open vestibule; from whence on either side winding flights of stairs ascend to the galleries. Three doors open to the main room, which is a spacious sanctuary sixty by fifty-five feet. The pews below will accommodate about 600, and the galleries about 400 persons. The whole interior is light and comfortable, and fitted up in good taste. The cost, exclusive of the steeple which has not yet been erected, is seven thousand dollars. It was dedicated to the worship of God in May 1832. The clergymen of this denomination began to labor statedly in Nashville, in 1829, and the succeeding year a society was organized with about a dozen members. This year the Rev. A. M. Dowell, had the pastoral charge, and they held their meetings in the city hall and catholic church. In May 1831, the Rev. Messrs. Donnell, Smith and others, held a five day's meeting in the new market house; the novelty drew thousands to the scene, and about thirty were added to the church. Arrangements were soon made for the erection of a church, which was ready for the reception of the General Assembly in May 1832, shortly after wards Messrs. Lowry and Smith, editors of the Revivalist, located in the place and jointly exercised the pastoral charge for one year.-At present there is no regular pastor, but the church have the alternate labors of several gentlemen. Num ber of members, seventy-two.

The Catholic Church,stands upon the northern declivity of Campbell's hill, which gives it a handsome appearance. It is, however, in a state of dilapidation, and there is no organized body of members, or officiating priest.

The Nashville Female Academy, a flourishing institution, is situated in the western suburbs of the city, near Spring street, in a handsome bowling-green. It was instituted in 1816, and incorporated in 1817. Dr. Berry was the principal for a time, but he resigned and was succeeded by the Rev. Mr. Hume, who presided 'till his death in 1833, when the present incumbent, the Rev. Robt. A. Lapsley was appointed. The school rooms will accommodate upwards of 200 pupils, and 70 or 80 may obtain boarding at the public boarding house. The greatest number of scholars at any one time was 239, but the number at present does not exceed 130.

The Bank of the State, is situated upon College street, immediately opposite Yeatman and Woods.-It was chartered in 1820 for twenty-three years, with a branch at Knoxville and agencies in every county in the state. The whole capital, which belonged to the state, has been appropriated for the promotion of internal improvement and common schools; and William M. Berryhill, Esq. has been appointed agent to close the concerns of the mother bank.

The bank of Yeatman Woods' & Co., a private institution, presents a stucco front, with arches, a recess and iron doors and windows. It is on the west side of College street, be tween the square and Union street. It is a very solvent institution. John P. Erwin, Esq. Cashier.

The Branch Bank of the United States, is a handsome brick building with plain columns, and is situated on the north corner of the public square. This branch which was established in 1827, has done an extensive business. The amount of specie reported in Jan. 1832, was $167,866.36. Thos. H. Fletcher, Esq. is president and John Sommerville, Esq. cashier.

The Union Bank of Tennessee, was chartered in 1832, with a capital not to exceed $3,000,000. It went into operation in 183,3 under very favourable auspices. The state owns half a million of stock, and individuals two millions. It is a bank of public deposite, both for the state and the United States, and the president is a pension agent. It has branches at Knoxville, Columbia and Jackson, and agencies at Baltimore, Philadelphia and New Orleans. The present banking house, is at the comer of College and Union streets, but a splendid house on the style of the United States Bank at Philadelphia, has been commenced at the corner of Union and Cherry streets, and will be finished by January 1835. George W. Gibbs, Esq., president, A. Vanwyck, Esq., Cashier.

The Planters Bank of Tennessee was chartered in 1833, and organized in 1834. Capital $2,000,000.-The temporary bank ing house, is on the north side of the public square, one door west of the Nashville Inn. Edward B. Littlefield, Esq., Presi dent, and Nicholas Hobson, Esq., Cashier.

The Penitentiary, is a beautiful and substantial Prison, located in the western suburbs of the city, on the right of the road leading from spring or church street, about one mile from the court house. The building was commenced in 1830, and finished so far as to receive convicts by the first of January 1831. It presents a front of three hundred and ten feet, and is three hundred and fifty in depth. The two wings of the front building contain two hundred cells, and half of the center building is occupied by the Keeper, and the other half is used for a hospital, guard rooms, &c. The yard walls are four and a half feet thick at the bottom, and three at the top, and have an average height of twenty feet. The whole cost of the edifice up to the reception by the State was less than $50,000. It was built by David Morrison, an experienced architect under the direction of the Governor and Commissioners. By the report made to the legislature in September 1833, the income for the preceding year was $23,223, and after deducting $16,771 for expenses &c., left a balance in favor of the institution of $6,552. Inspectors, William Carroll, Samuel G. Smith, Robert C. Foster, Moses Ridley and Eastin Morris. Keeper, John McIntosh. In April 1834, there were eighty convicts engaged in shoemaking, hatting, tailoring, coopering, blacksmithing, wagonmaking, carding, &c.

The Lunatic Hospital, is pleasantly situated on an elevated spot south of Vauxhall Garden. The act for its establishment was passed October 19th, 1832, and ten thousand dollars appropriated to purchase the site and commence the building. In 1833 one half of the State tax of the years 1834 and 1835 for the county of Davidson, was appropriated in addition. With the exception of the penitentiary, it is the largest building in the State, and when completed will be an ornament to the city, as well as a monument of the humanity and charity of the State. It is three stories high including the basement story, with an additional tier of rooms in the centre building. The base and front walls are of stone, and the remainder of brick. When the whole is finished, upwards of one hundred unfortunate persons may be comfortably provided for, and secured in separate rooms.

Commissioners, Joseph Woods, H. R. W. Hill, Felix Robert son, John Shelby and Boyd McNairy.

The Water Works, for supplying the city with water, are located on the bank of the river above the city.

They were constructed by Albert Stein, an experienced engineer, at the expense of the corporation, and completed in November, 1833. The water is raised from the river by a high pressure steam engine. The engine house is built of stone and brick, thirty six by thirty feet, and fifty feet above low water mark. The reservoir stands on an elevation of one hundred and sixty-six feet above low water mark, and 45 above the level of the public square, near a fine cedar grove, which partially obstructs the view of the city, but it adds much to the comfort and beauty of the spot as a summer evening's retreat. It is distant from the public square, by the line of the main pipe, 5879 feet, and from the lower pump, by the ascending main, 472 feet, seventy feet six inches long, eighty feet six inches wide, and ten feet six inches deep. Both of them when filled to the depth of ten feet, will contain 695,520 gallons. The quantity of water which may be raised in twenty four hours, at twenty strokes per minute, is 950,000 gallons, and at sixteen strokes per minute, 750,000. The main pipe leading from the reservoir, is of six inch bore, and extends as follows: 1838 feet to the circular pipe in Market street, with a fall of fifty and a half feet, from thence to the branch pipe with stop cock on Market street, 1628 feet, with a descent of sixty one and a half feet, making a fall of 112 feet from the top of the reservoir; from thence to the square, 2413 feet with an ascent of sixty-seven feet. The whole cost of the works up to Nov. 1833, was $49,264.56, including $8,727.77, paid for the ground and for superintendency. Since which time, the city authorities have been actively engaged in extending the pipes, and will, in a short time, have an ample supply of good water in every part of the city. Strangers in the city during the summer months, will find it an agreeable excursion to visit the Water Works, Vauxhall Garden and the Sulphur spring.

Vauxhall Garden, is a place of fashionable resort, and is situated in the southern border of the city, near the Franklin turnpike. Here is an ingenious circular rail-way, two hundred and sixty two yards in circumference. The cars are so constructed that persons are enabled to propel themselves at a most rapid rate, simply by turning of a crank with the hands. There is also a large assembly room, handsomely decorated; and the promenade, walks and other places of amusement and recreation, are laid off and arranged in good taste. It is owned and kept by Mr. John Decker, a gentleman who spares no pains to render his parterre acceptable to visitors.

The Sulphur Spring, is situated in the lower suburbs, on French Lick creek, between Cherry and Summer streets. The water is a strong salt sulphur, but clear, cold and palatable, and is said to contain about the same properties of the celebrated Harrowgate waters.-Here are also cold and warm baths; and the curious observer can spend a leisure hour very satisfactorily, in examining the fragments of Indian pottery ware, ancient furnaces for making salt, and various aboriginal remains which exist here in great abundance.

The Post Office is situated on Cherry and Deaderick streets. It is a distributing office, and receives about fifty mails per week. The net revenue for the first quarter of 1834 was $1,431.50.

Originally published by Debie Oeser Cox at Nashville History on rootsweb.